As the example shows, you can disable the Ctrl/Y function (which suspends execution of the current image and invokes the command interpreter) to force execution of the complete login command procedure whenever the user logs in. Do this with the DCL command SET NOCONTROL=Y. Before the login command procedure exits, add the DCL command that resets the Ctrl/Y function (SET CONTROL=Y).
Example 6-2 shows typical abbreviations and symbols that a user might define in a login file.
Example 6-2 Sample Login Command Procedure (LOGIN.COM) for a User Account
$ SET NOON $ SET PROTECTION=(S=RD,O=RWED,G=R,W=R)/DEFAULT $ ! $ ! Define abbreviations for often used commands $ ! $ DIR*ECTORY == DIRECTORY/DATE/SIZE $ PU*RGE == PURGE/LOG $ DE*LETE == DELETE/LOG/CONFIRM $ ! $ ! $ ! Other useful abbreviations $ ! $ SHP == "SHOW PROCESS/PRIVILEGES" $ PRI*NT == "PRINT/NOTIFY" $ SHD == "SHOW DEFAULT" $ UP == "SET DEFAULT [-]" $ SP == "SET PROCESS/PRIVILEGES=" $ SQ == "SHOW QUEUE/BATCH/ALL/DEVICE" $ H*OME == "SET DEFAULT SYS$LOGIN" $ SUB*MIT == "SUBMIT/NOTIFY" $ SYS == "SHOW SYSTEM" $ DAY == "SHOW TIME" $ ! $ ! Set /LOG for all commands $ ! $ BACK*UP == "BACKUP/LOG" $ DEL*ETE == "DELETE/LOG" $ LIB*RARY == "LIBRARY/LOG" $ PUR*GE == "PURGE/LOG" $ REN*AME == "RENAME/LOG" $ ! $ ! End of LOGIN.COM processing $ ! $ GOTO 'F$MODE() $NETWORK: $ EXIT $INTERACTIVE: $ VN == "SET TERMINAL/WIDTH=80" $ VW == "SET TERMINAL/WIDTH=132" $ EXPERT == "SET MESSAGE/NOFACIL/NOSEVER/NOIDENT" $ NOVICE == "SET MESSAGE/FACILITY/SEVERITY/IDENTIF" $ NOVICE $ ! $ ! Symbols for network users $ ! $ SYSA == "SET HOST SYSA" $ SYSB == "SET HOST SYSB" $ SYSC == "SET HOST SYSC" $ EXIT ! End of interactive login $BATCH: $ SET VERIFY ! End of batch login $ EXIT
Using Logout Command Procedures
The system does not provide for automatic execution of a command procedure at logout time. However, you can supply one as follows.
How to Perform This Task
The last line of the logout command procedure then uses an alternate form of the LOGOUT command, such as a LOGOUTNOW command. (You can create any command name you like beginning with LO.) You cannot use the same abbreviation as used for the symbol (in this case LO) because it will start the procedure again. As an alternative, you could add the following command, just above the last line:
$ DELETE/SYMBOL/GLOBAL LOGOUT
Note that this technique works in some situations but it is not
foolproof; there are many alternative ways to terminate a process.
6.7.2 Modifying a User Account
To change a user account's quotas, default directory, password, authorized privileges, or any other characteristics assigned by AUTHORIZE, use the MODIFY command. You can use the MODIFY command to change any field in an existing user account. However, a user must log out and log in again for the modifications to take effect.
UAF> MODIFY WELCH/GENERATE_PASSWORD
UAF> MODIFY JONES/FILLM=40
Use the AUTHORIZE command LIST to create the file SYSUAF.LIS, containing a summary of all user records in the UAF. By default, the LIST command produces a brief report containing the following information from the UAF:
Use the /FULL qualifier to create a full report of all the information (except user passwords) contained within the UAF.
The following example writes a brief report of the UAF to the output file SYSUAF.LIS:
UAF> LIST %UAF-I-LSTMSG1, writing listing file %UAF-I-LSTMSG2, listing file SYSUAF.LIS complete
The system displays the same messages when you use the /FULL qualifier.
However, a full report is written to the output file.
6.7.4 Maintaining the User Environment
As the work requirements of your system change, you might have to do the following:
With the Authorize utility, you can perform these maintenance operations by modifying or deleting records in the UAF.
Creating Additional Default Record Templates
On systems where all users perform the same type of work, you typically use the system-supplied default record, DEFAULT, as the template for adding new user records. You might find, however, that your system supports several different user categories, each category performing a specific type of work and requiring unique record attributes. Instead of always using the system-supplied default record as a template and making numerous changes each time you add a user record, you can create additional default UAF records to serve as templates for each user category.
Before you create additional default records, you must decide the following:
How to Perform This Task
Once you define a user category and establish which record attributes are needed, you can create the default record.
UAF> ADD DEFAULT2/LGICMD=ALT_COM_PROC/FLAGS=CAPTIVE - _UAF> /DEVICE=USER3:/DIRECTORY=[PRODUCT]
UAF> COPY DEFAULT2 PALOOKA/PASSWORD=W7YA84MI/UIC=[360,114]
The main problem in deleting an account, especially an interactive or restricted account, is deleting the files used by the account.
How to Perform This Task
The following steps are suggested:
The command procedure template in Example 6-3 deletes an account's files.
NoteDo not execute this command procedure from a privileged account.
Example 6-3 Command Procedure Template for Deleting an Account's Files
$ ! DELTREE.COM - deletes a complete directory tree $ ! $ ! P1 = pathname of root of tree to delete $ ! $ ! All files and directories in the tree, including $ ! the named root, are deleted. $ ! $ IF "''DELTREE'" .EQS. "" THEN DELTREE = "@SYS$LIBRARY:DELTREE" $ ON CONTROL_Y THEN GOTO DONE $ ON WARNING THEN GOTO DONE $ DEFAULT = F$LOGICAL("SYS$DISK") + F$DIRECTORY() $10: $ IF P1 .NES. "" THEN GOTO 20 $ INQUIRE P1 "Root" $ GOTO 10 $20: $ IF F$PARSE(P1) .EQS. "" THEN OPEN FILE 'P1' $ SET DEFAULT 'P1' $LOOP: $ FILESPEC = F$SEARCH("*.DIR;1") $ IF FILESPEC .EQS. "" THEN GOTO LOOPEND $ DELTREE [.'F$PARSE(FILESPEC,,,"NAME")'] $ GOTO LOOP $LOOPEND: $ IF F$SEARCH("*.*;*") .NES. "" THEN DELETE *.*;* $ DIR = (F$DIRECTORY()-"]"-">")-F$PARSE("[-]",,,- "DIRECTORY")-"]"-">")-"."-"["-"<" $ SET PROTECTION=WORLD:RWED [-]'DIR'.DIR;1 $ DELETE [-]'DIR'.DIR;1 $DONE: $ SET DEFAULT 'DEFAULT'
If each user has a unique UIC, you can use the Backup utility (BACKUP) to remove the user's files, even if the files are scattered throughout the directory structure. See the Backup utility section in the OpenVMS System Management Utilities Reference Manual for more information.
$ BACKUP/DELETE PUBLIC:[...]/BY_OWNER=[21,103] MTA0:PUBLICUIC.SAV
To disable an account without deleting it, set the disable user flag
(/FLAGS=DISUSER) using AUTHORIZE. If the user is logged in, the account
is disabled only after the user logs out.
6.8 Restricting the Use of Accounts
Workload schedules often dictate the days and times your system is used to perform specific operations. Depending on the nature of the work performed at your site, you might want to control when certain users are allowed to log in. Use the Authorize utility (AUTHORIZE) to place controls in the login characteristics fields of the UAF record to restrict the days and times a user can log in and to inhibit certain login functions.
The following sections describe how to perform these tasks:
|Setting day types||Section 6.8.1|
|Restricting logins to specific times||Section 6.8.2|
|Restricting login functions||Section 6.8.3|
|Using login command procedures for restricted or captive accounts||Section 6.8.4|
|Setting priorities for user processes||Section 6.8.5|
For a detailed description of the qualifiers used to restrict the use
of accounts, see the Authorize utility section in the OpenVMS System Management Utilities Reference Manual.
6.8.1 Setting Day Types
You can restrict the use of certain accounts by defining the days of the week as either PRIMARY or SECONDARY, and then assigning login restrictions to these day types. For example, if you define the days Saturday and Sunday as SECONDARY days, then any restrictions you assign to the SECONDARY day type apply to both.
You can assign two types of login restrictions to either day type:
|Time restrictions||Limits logins to specific hours of the day|
|Function restrictions||Limit types of login|
The default user record defines the five weekdays (Monday through Friday) as PRIMARY days, and the two weekend days (Saturday and Sunday) as SECONDARY days.
The way you define days and assign restrictions depends on your site. For example, suppose that on weekdays your system supports a large number of interactive users, but on weekends it is used for certain operations that require dedicated system resources. By assigning restrictions to the SECONDARY day type, you can restrict users from accessing the system during the days defined as SECONDARY. You can change these day type definitions for any account using the following AUTHORIZE qualifier:
The /PRIMEDAYS qualifier uses a list of day names to define the PRIMARY
and SECONDARY days of the week. To define a day as a SECONDARY day, use
the prefix NO before the day name. Any days you omit from the list take
their default value.
6.8.2 Restricting Logins to Specific Times
By default, there are no restrictions on login hours. You can specify login time restrictions using the following AUTHORIZE qualifiers:
|/[NO]ACCESS||Specifies access hours for all modes of logins|
|/[NO]DIALUP||Specifies access hours for interactive logins from dialup terminals|
|/[NO]INTERACTIVE||Specifies access hours for interactive logins from any terminal|
|/[NO]LOCAL||Specifies access hours for interactive logins from local terminals|
|/[NO]REMOTE||Specifies access hours for interactive logins from network remote terminals (SET HOST)|
Users still logged in when the access time has expired receive the following warning message and have 2 minutes to log out before their processes are terminated by the job controller:
JBC-W-RESTRICT, UAF restricts access at this time, please log out immediately
In addition to specifying hourly login restrictions, you can assign function restrictions to an account by using appropriate keywords with the /FLAGS qualifier in the Authorize utility. By default, there are no restrictions. Options are shown in the following table:
|[NO]AUDIT||[Do not] audit all security-relevant actions.|
|[NO]AUTOLOGIN||[Do not] prevent access except by automatic login when automatic logins are enabled.|
|[NO]CAPTIVE||[Do not] prevent user from changing any defaults at login (implies DISCTLY).|
|[Do not] deny user access to the DCL command level.|
|[NO]DEFCLI||[Do not] prevent user from changing default CLI or CLI tables.|
|[NO]DISCTLY||[Do not] disable Ctrl/Y interrupts.|
|[NO]DISFORCE_PWD_CHANGE||[Do not] remove requirement that user must change an expired password at login.|
|[NO]DISIMAGE||[Do not] prevent user from using the RUN or MCR commands or from executing "foreign" commands.|
|[NO]DISMAIL||[Do not] prevent mail delivery to the user.|
|[NO]DISNEWMAIL||[Do not] suppress "New Mail..." announcements.|
|[NO]DISPWDDIC||[Do not] disable automatic screening of new passwords against a system dictionary.|
|[NO]DISPWDHIS||[Do not] disable automatic checking of new passwords against list of user's old passwords.|
|[NO]DISRECONNECT||[Do not] disable automatic reconnection to an existing process when a terminal connection has been interrupted.|
|[NO]DISREPORT||[Do not] disable reporting of login information (last login date, login failures, and so on).|
|[NO]DISUSER||[Do not] disable account completely.|
|[NO]DISWELCOME||[Do not] suppress "Welcome to..." login message.|
|[NO]GENPWD||[Do not] require user to use generated passwords.|
|[NO]LOCKPWD||[Do not] prevent user from changing password.|
|[NO]PWD_EXPIRED||[Do not] mark password as expired.|
|[NO]PWD2_EXPIRED||[Do not] mark second password as expired.|
|[NO]RESTRICTED||[Do not] prevent user from changing any defaults at login.|
Using the /LGICMD qualifier with the AUTHORIZE commands ADD, MODIFY, or COPY defines the login procedure for a restricted or captive account. A person logging in to such an account cannot modify the procedure with any of the login qualifiers: /CLI, /DISK, /COMMAND, /NOCOMMAND, /TABLES.
The CAPTIVE and RESTRICTED flags do the following:
Once logged in, a person using a restricted account operates from the DCL level and can access any available software.
A person using a captive account is locked into the application software where access to the DCL level is denied, provided the system manager observes the following practices:
A simple login command procedure for a captive account used for an inventory system might consist of the following commands:
$ DEFINE SYS$DISK DISK$INVENT $ RUN INVENTORY $ LOGOUT
The application program INVENTORY assumes control when the user logs in to the account. Assign the CAPTIVE flag to the login flags field of the captive account UAF record by specifying the AUTHORIZE qualifier /FLAGS=CAPTIVE. Section 6.7.4 shows how to use AUTHORIZE to create a UAF record for a captive account.
Example 6-4 is a command procedure for a highly secure captive account, which restricts the user to a very limited set of commands. System managers must be sure to deny the account owner any write access to the login command procedure and its directory. Note also that the security manager would use the AUTHORIZE qualifier /NOINTERACTIVE when establishing this account.
For more information about captive and restricted accounts, see the OpenVMS Guide to System Security.
Example 6-4 Sample Captive Command Procedure
$ deassign sys$input $ previous_sysinput == f$logical("SYS$INPUT") $ on error then goto next_command $ on control_y then goto next_command $ set control=(y,t) $ $next_command: $ on error then goto next_command $ on control_y then goto next_command $ $ if previous_sysinput .nes. f$logical("SYS$INPUT") then deassign sys$input $ read/end=next_command/prompt="$ " sys$command command $ command == f$edit(command,"UPCASE,TRIM,COMPRESS") $ if f$length(command) .eq. 0 then goto next_command $ $ delete = "delete" $ delete/symbol/local/all $ if f$locate("@",command) .ne. f$length(command) then goto illegal_command $ if f$locate("=",command) .ne. f$length(command) then goto illegal_command $ if f$locate("F$",command) .ne. f$length(command) then goto illegal_command $ verb = f$element(0," ",command) $ $ if verb .EQS. "LOGOUT" then goto do_logout $ if verb .EQS. "HELP" then goto do_help $ $ write sys$output "%CAPTIVE-W-IVVERB, unrecognized command \",verb,"\" $ goto next_command $ $illegal_command: $ write sys$output "%CAPTIVE-W-ILLEGAL, bad characters in command line" $ goto next_command $ $do_logout: $ logout $ goto next_command $ $do_help: $ define sys$input sys$command $ help $ goto next_command
A user's priority is the base priority used in scheduling the process that the system creates for the user.
On VAX systems, priorities range in value from a low of 0 to a high of 31; 0 through 15 are timesharing priorities; 16 through 31 are real-time priorities.
On Alpha systems, priorities range in value from a low of 0 to a high of 63; 0 through 15 are timesharing priorities; 16 through 63 are real-time priorities.
Processes with real-time priorities are scheduled strictly according to base priority; in other words, the executable real-time process with the highest base priority is executed first. Processes with timesharing priorities are scheduled according to a slightly different principle to promote overlapping of computation and I/O activities.
In the user's account record of the UAF, the default value of a user's
priority is 4; for practical purposes, the minimum value is 0. Ensure
that the priority for timesharing users remains at the default. Note
that if you give some users an advantage over other users by raising
their priorities, ragged performance results, because the system reacts
sharply to even small base priority differences.
6.9 Setting Up Special Accounts
As system manager, you might need to set up a variety of special accounts, such as automatic login accounts, project accounts, and proxy accounts. The following sections explain how to perform these tasks:
|Setting up an automatic login account with SYSMAN||Section 6.9.1|
|Setting up a project account with ACL identifiers||Section 6.9.2|
|Creating network proxy authorization files||Section 6.9.4|
|Adding proxy accounts||Section 6.9.5|
|Removing proxy accounts||Section 6.9.6|
|Displaying proxy accounts||Section 6.9.7|
|Controlling proxy logins||Section 6.9.8|
Section 6.9.3 explains what network proxy accounts are.
6.9.1 Setting Up an Automatic Login Account with SYSMAN
The System Management utility (SYSMAN) includes the functions of the automatic login facility (ALF). Using SYSMAN ALF commands, you can set up a terminal that automatically logs in a user to a certain user name. For example, a terminal might be set up for the account INVENTORY, which automatically logs in a user to a captive account when the user presses the Return key.
6017P016.HTM OSSG Documentation 22-NOV-1996 14:21:39.40
Copyright © Digital Equipment Corporation 1996. All Rights Reserved.